I gave some thought to Manfred Borgis’ article in Issue 7 and how to cut-down 120 roll film. Although this appears simple on paper, three things niggle in my mind.
- Firstly how to cut the film to size without scratching the emulsion; the film should also be slightly narrower than the paper backing to ensure a light tight seal between the spool and the paper roll. This is not too much of a problem if the film is kept in the dark and loaded in virtual darkness.
- Secondly, how much to cut off the length of the leader and trailer paper and how much to cut off the film emulsion.
- Thirdly, because the film is taped to the leader, when it is wound through the cutter system, the untapped trailer would be first back onto the roll when rewound and thus would need taping to the paper backing so it is correctly wound onto the spool again.
I have found that when running 120 film through a camera as a test and then re-winding it (in daylight), it is almost impossible to correctly position the film with the backing paper so that when the film is wound back onto the spool, the taped film portion does not cause a ‘bump’ where the emulsion and backing have ‘slipped’. The only way to correct this is to peel off the sticky tape and re-position it on the paper and carry on rolling. A quick flash of inspiration! Could I just trim 120 emulsion and attach it to 127 backing paper?
Having ‘rolled-my-own’ 16mm film for my Rollei 16, I know how easy it is to scratch the emulsion, although with such a small negative, the damage is much more noticeable.
I know that people have and do cut down 120 roll film to 127 and Manfred’s photographs show clearly that it is worth the effort, so my concerns can’t be that much of a problem; but I do worry…!
My ‘idle’ mind wandered through these issues and I was thinking about a suitable cutter; whether to make a cutter like Manfred uses; to adapt a cheap 120 camera along the lines of the one that appears appended to Manfred’s article or whether a Rolleiflex plate back adapter could be non-destructively adapted to do the job ‘in style’.
My first task was to get a roll of 127 film, measure it, compare it to a 120 roll and then evaluate exactly how much needs to be cut off and from where.
I had purchased some Efke R21 127 B&W 100 ASA film years ago (dated April 95) and some Kodacolour 200 ASA 127 film (dated June 93) as soon as Kodak announced its withdrawal. These have been kept in the fridge.
Getting 127 film developed is not easy unless you do-it-yourself and of course you may want to keep the spools for re-use. The logical choice was to use the B&W film, because it’s easily replaced at present and I have B&W (and colour too) developing equipment. So, I ran a film through my ‘Baby’ during a walk around Bosham.
National Trust Sign on Bosham Creek with 127 Film
I have not used my darkroom equipment since it was moved 8 years ago. I have some Agfa Rodinol which was opened in November 1999 (I date my chemicals when I open the bottle) and I have read that Rodinol does not deteriorate with time. I would be able to put this to the test – nothing ventured, nothing gained. I pulled out my changing bag and loaded the film into the tank; 127 film, being narrower than 120, is less likely to kink and it aligns with the reel quite well. Also, being shorter, it is much easier in a changing bag. I pulled out all my chemicals and equipment and I noticed that the column of alcohol in the thermometer had separated. “Confound it!” There was only one thing to do, dip it into near boiling water and watch the lower column run up towards the upper column. This got a bit ‘hair-raising’ because the upper column was pushed right up to the top with a gap still in the middle! “Easy does it!” By just easing the bulb up and down in the hot water, I coaxed the lower column up until it joined with the upper section and quickly snatched the thermometer from the water. ‘Bingo’ it had worked! One complete column of alcohol again and a working thermometer. The thermometer had been stored horizontally for eight years, so I guess that this was the cause. I will now keep it vertical.
I had to find the development times for the Efke R21 from the internet, the instructions with the Rodinol did not specify the information. I found the details at digital truth which rated the film the same as Efke 100. The times from the internet, again on the Digital Truth site, gave details for 50:1 and 100:1 dilution. I decided on 100:1 for 16 minutes @ 20° C. Due to the age of the film I worked at 70° F (21.2° C) which gives about a 10% increase in development to compensate for this fact. I cleared a space in the bathroom and went through the process. Although it has been at least 10 years since I had done any developing, it all came back quite naturally. Once dry, the negative strip looked tiny compared to 120 film, really quite manageable. The film had plenty of detail and I was pleased. When I scanned the negatives, they were quite ‘flat’, lacking contrast, a little adjustment in Photoshop can soon improve that. There is a small amount of fogging on the edges of some frames too. On a number of frames it looked as if the film had reticulated (caused by rapid change in temperature) which was not the case because even the rinse water had been maintained at exactly 70° F and anyway, this emulsion damage was random. It shows up in the highlight areas of the print, e.g. the sky. I think, because the film was just wrapped in foil, that with changes in fridge temperature, dampness/condensation may have been the cause. It is not really a problem because this was just a test, firstly to see that the camera worked and secondly that the Rodinol was still active as was my fixer and stop bath. I also now had a used 127 film to take comparative measurements from (see below).
Cutting down 120 film to 127
In the meantime, whilst quietly inverting the developing tank once a minute, I had ‘chewed over’ the cutting down 120 to 127 task and had added the wasted length of film into the equation, I have concluded that, other than actually being able to take 4×4 transparencies with a ‘Baby’, it would be more economical and easier to use a 4.5×6 adapter in a Rolleicord, Rolleiflex ‘T’ or Rolleimagic, and get 16 frames on the 120 roll commercially developed for a few pounds. Then, is all you have to do is to trim the transparency to size and mount it in a 4×4 slide mount. Of course, if you really insist on ‘roll-your-own’ 127 transparencies (unless you are happy to develop the E6 127 film yourself), certainly in the UK, it is not easy to find a processor who still has the ability to develop sizes other than 35mm and 120 at a ‘sensible’ price – and then you still have to make sure you get the spool back again for re-use.
Developing colour film (negative or reversal) is as easy as developing B&W only it takes longer. The main differences are that the temperatures must be accurately maintained (ideally use a temperature controlled bath) and the number of steps is greater. The cost of the processing kits is quite high and they do not keep for more than a few weeks once opened. It pays to expose the correct number of films for the kit and then process them in one go or over a few days. The home developing cost per 120 or 35mm colour film is not a lot different to commercial processing, so economy with these film sizes is not a reason to consider it.
Bosham Boat Shed with Baby Rolleiflex – 127 film
If a few members would like to purchase 127 colour print film from Maco or Frugal Photographer, then it would probably be worth placing a ‘multiple’ order to reduce pro rata carriage costs. If this is of interest, please contact me and I can look into it further. Black and white film, being available in the UK, is not such an issue but if added to a colour order could bring savings too. The only proviso is that payment would have to be ‘up front’.
I will continue my ponderings in due course and get back to you…
Some useful links:
http://www.onetwoseven.org.uk/– offers tips and has even used 35mm film in a Yashica 44.
http://www.photofilmprocessing.co.uk/110filmprocessing.html – offers 127 processing & printing @ £9.
http://www.jcbimaging.com/126_developing.htm @ £25 per film (!).
Overview and Personal Comments
The Yashica 44 LM is a twin-lens reflex (TLR) camera that is basically a copy of the Baby Rolleiflex. It uses 127 size film (just slightly smaller than standard 120 medium format) to shoot 44mm x 44mm “superslide” square format photos. The LM added a “Light Meter” to the Yashica 44, which is based on the Yashicamat system. The 44LM is the last of the 44 series. Using the text or images on this website without permission on an ebay auction or any other site is a violation of federal law.
I purchased this as part of a larger lot of cameras at an auction in North St. Paul in 2003.01. I was originally going to sell it to fuel my
habit hobby, but looking at the photos that other people have taken (see links below), I was swayed to keep it. The Tessar type lens seems to really glow but in the end I ended up selling it.
The camera does not sport a cold-shoe for flash mounting! Instead you use an accessory shoe that mounts over the viewfinder.
I talked with Mark Hama who worked in the factory that made these cameras. Apparently the 44LM came in 7 different colors and was known as the “rainbox” camera. My own is a light grey. This is the 40 year precursor to the multicolored Hasselblad 501CM! Using the text or images on this website without permission on an ebay auction or any other site is a violation of federal law.
Very new to that age, the camera has a built-in partially coupled CDs lightmeter. You dial in the ASA speed of your film, the camera body automatically relays the shutter speed, and you push the black “meter” button on the rear of the camera. The dial on the tells you which f/ stop to set your lens to. Great!
I can’t figure out for the life of me why there’s a ASA/DIN film reminder on the left focusing crank; and also one on the right film winding crank! One’s to calibrate the light meter, the other is…. all I can guess is that they kept the crank from the older 44.
127 film is harder to get these days, but you can still get it from B&H Photo in New York or Freestyle Photo in California. Yashica 44s are rare, most people will think you have a Baby Rollei.
Place of Manufacture
Date of Manufacture
|1958.4 ~ 1962.4|
|Twin lens reflex|
|Taking lens: 60cm f/3.5 Yashinon (multicoated)
Viewing lens: 60cm f/3.5 Yashinon (multicoated)
1 sec – 1/500 sec.
|Selenium cell mounted on camera body (above the lens ATL)
Cold-shoe mount on left side
PC-cable attachment on front side
Film type / speeds
|Type 127 film (medium format)
Dimensions and weight
Note: Using the text, table, or images on this site in an ebay auction without permission is a violation of your ebay Terms of Service. I will report you to ebay if I discover such a violation taking place. This may result in your account being cancelled. I also reserve the right to file claim for civil penalties.
The Yashica Corporation began making cameras in 1957, releasing its first model in 1958 (the Yashica 35). They produced a very well regarded series of twin-lens-reflex (TLR) medium format cameras under the Yashica-Mat brand and 35mm rangefinders under the Yashica Electro name. Yashica became a subsidiary of the Kyocera Corporation in October of 1983. For the next two decades, Kyocera continued to produce film cameras under the Contax marquee, including a very nice 35mmContax SLR series (which used Zeiss lenses), a medium format system, and the Contax G1/G2 rangefinders (also with Zeiss glass).The Yashica name was only used for a small series of dental cameras and point and shoots. In March of 2005, Kyocera announced that it would cease production and sales of film and digital cameras under the Contax marquee. Thus ends 30 years of a wonderful camera line. The Contax name will most probably revert back to the Zeiss foundation, thus who knows what will happen in the future. Right now, the name “Yashica” appears to have been bought by a Chinese company for their inexpensive digital cameras.
Manual for operating Yashica LM 44 can be found here.
The yashica LM 44 uses 127 film, which is very rare nowadays. developing the film is also going to be a problem.
here is an introduction to 127 film and places you can find them.
The 127 film is a paper-backed rollfilm, 4.6cm wide, originally designed to store eight pictures in 4×6.5cm format. It was created by Kodak for their Vest Pocket model – hence 127 was often called Vest Pocket film. Many of the first generation of 127 film cameras were similar folders, and frequently inherited Vest Pocket or VP in their names – for example the Dolly Vest Pocket. See Category: 4×6.5.
In 1930, during the Great Depression, the camera makers tried to optimize the use of film, and cameras began to appear taking 16 exposures in 3x4cm format on the 127 film, the first one being the Zeiss Ikon Kolibri. See Category: 3×4.
In Japan, the 127 film was called “Vest film” (ベストフィルム; Besuto firumu) until approximately the 1950s, because the film was introduced for the Vest Pocket camera.
In the 1950s there was a short revival of the 127 film with cameras designed to take 12 exposures in 4x4cm format. Several firms produced high-quality cameras, primarily twin-lens reflexes, in this format. The film was available in color slide emulsions, and the resulting 4x4cm slides could be projected in a normal projector designed for 24x36mm slides. They were advertised as Superslide. Kodak made such a range of very basic cameras. Rollei made a more advanced Rolleiflex Baby camera until the beginning of the 1960s. Togudu and Yashica in Japan produced outstanding examples. See Category: 4×4.
After the 1960s, 127 film declined in popularity as camera manufacturers focused on 35mm. Kodak ended production of 127 in 1995 and other major manufacturers immediately followed.
Fotokemika in Croatia was an exception, and it is still making highly-regarded “Efke” brand 127 black and white films. In 2006, Bluefire in Canada began manufacturing 127 C-41 color print films which are made using film stock from major factories, which is machine-rolled onto custom-manufactured spools and backing paper. Dick Haviland, a retired Kodak executive, has for many years made 127 films by hand from salvaged spools and custom-printed backing paper, which he sells through major on-line retailers. It is expected that 127 will continue to be available from boutique manufacturers for many more years.